A Day in the Life of a TAS Archaeologist

By Tiffany Cochran, Field Technician

When I tell people I’m an archaeologist with the Tribal Archaeologist Section (TAS) of the Seminole Tribe of Florida, they usually respond with, “That’s so exciting!” or “Awesome! Like Indiana Jones!?”  Most of the time I respond by smiling and explaining that sadly, it’s not quite as…eventful…as Indiana Jones.  Instead of fighting bad guys and dodging booby traps, it is a lot of walking, digging, lifting, screening, and sweating.  So what is it really like to be an archaeologist?  Let me take you through a typical day in the life of an archaeologist for the TAS.

  1. First, we wake up ridiculously early in the morning to get ready for work.image 1

Working outdoors means you have to take advantage of as much daylight as possible, which means getting started as early in the morning as possible.  Not a morning person, I wake up with just enough time to get dressed in my field clothes, grab a banana and a granola bar to eat in the car, throw some random food in a bag for lunch, and race out the door.

2. Next is the scramble to prepare for the field.

After the most important step in the morning preparations,

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Coffee, of course

there are several things we have to prepare before we leave for the field. By “the field,” I am referring to our term for going out to do a project.  Sometimes this is in an actual field or pasture, but it can be in any kind of environment, such as a home site, a hammock or tree island, a cypress dome, the side of a roadway, and sometimes even a patch of grass surrounded by a parking lot. One of our first steps is to prepare the Trimble, which is our mobile GPS device.
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We load a map of our project area onto the Trimble each morning.  Included in this map are the GPS locations of all of the holes, which we call shovel tests, that we need to dig for a particular project.  In the field, the Trimble can lead us straight to the location of each shovel test.  The Trimble also keeps track of information such as depth, disturbances, and termination reason.

Next is preparing paperwork.  A project “desktop” is prepared ahead of time, which is a folder that includes all the information we need, such as maps of the project area, locations of utilities we need to avoid, locations of the shovel tests to be excavated, topography, elevation, and soil info, and info on who leases the land and who to contact to get access to the area.  The number and location of the shovel tests that we need to dig is determined before we start the project.  We take notes for every shovel test we complete.  We use Shovel Test Forms to record the necessary information.

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I never saw Indy doing paperwork…

Once the Trimble is ready and paperwork has been gathered, each person prepares his/her own personal field equipment.  We each carry a backpack that includes your standard archaeologist’s equipment: clipboard, pencils, sharpies, measuring tape (in centimeters and meters, not inches and feet), sunscreen, bug spray, artifact bags and labels, water bottles, sometimes a snack for energy, trowels, compass, gloves (for screening dirt), a machete, and a Munsell© soil color chart.  We then put on our snake boots, a required piece of personal protective equipment (PPE) for a Florida archaeologist, and our hats.

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Indian Jones got some things right

Now ready to leave the office, we bring our field trucks to our storage shed and load it with the equipment needed for digging shovel tests: shovels, screens, and tarps on which to screen the soil to make it easier to backfill the holes.  Once these are in the back of the truck, we are ready to head to our project area.

3.Fieldwork

Most of the TAS’s fieldwork consists of Phase I archaeological survey.  What is this?  Basically, any time there is going to be ground disturbing activity on the reservations, such as construction activity, fence installations, creating ditches, etc., it is required that the TAS first survey the area to make sure that the ground disturbing activity will not affect any cultural material.  Our surveys include pedestrian survey, or walking through the project area to see if we find any artifacts on the surface, and shovel testing, which means digging holes at regular intervals and screening the dirt through a mesh screen to see if we find any cultural material.image 6

The truth is that most of the time we don’t find any artifacts.  We mostly find rocks, roots, modern debris, and worms.

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And creepier things with far too many legs…

Once we have finished digging and screening the shovel test, we record the important information.  While the person who dug the shovel test fills out the paperwork, the person who screened the dirt puts the same information into the Trimble as a backup.  If we do find artifacts in the shovel test, we place them in bags to keep them safe and label the bags with info on the location, stratum (layer of soil), date, contents, and who collected the artifacts.

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Animal bone and pottery are our most common finds
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Sadly, I still have not found any pirate treasure… yet

4. Back in the office

Once we are done digging for the day, we head back to the office.  We first have to unload all of our equipment from the back of the truck to the equipment shed.  Afterward, we turn any artifacts in to the lab to be processed.  After stomping as much of the dirt off of our boots as we can, we take our personal equipment back to our desks.  We then try to clean ourselves up as best we can at the bathroom sinks.  I bring a fresh change of clothes each day so that I don’t have to sit in my dirty and sweaty clothes at my desk or in my car on the way home.  We plug the Trimbles into the computer and load all of the information we gathered on it that day into our ArcGIS© system.  We put our completed paperwork into the project folder.  The last hour or so of the day is dedicated to paperwork, such as the “desktops” previously mentioned or reports on the projects we have completed.  At 5:00 p.m. we clock out and leave to begin our long drive back home.

5. Dangers in the field

Remember how I mentioned that there are non-glamorous aspects of archaeology?  Sweat is definitely the most prolific.  This is Florida.  The heat and humidity here make you start pouring sweat the second you step out of your door.image 10

Now imagine digging holes for six hours in that mess.  Not only does it make things uncomfortable and rather smelly at times, but it can be dangerous.  Heat exhaustion and dehydration are real risks, especially in summer.  We make sure to bring plenty of water with us and we keep electrolyte tablets on hand just in case.  Besides the heat, nature can mess with us by sending rain, heavy winds, and thunderstorms.

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As I said, this is Florida…so, hurricanes.

We have to pay attention to make sure we don’t get caught in something dangerous.  Being out in an open field during a thunderstorm holding metal shovels is not a good idea.

The distance between shovel tests depends on what we believe the probability of locating cultural material in the area may be.  Probability depends on multiple factors, such as looking at historic aerial maps, soil information, elevation, and environment.  Sometimes we are lucky and are able to drive close to the project area.  Sometimes, however, we are blocked from the area by fences, canals, or giant man-eating alligators.

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Ok, that one hasn’t happened yet, but I still keep an eye out!

In that case, we walk to every hole carrying up to 40 lbs of equipment through environments such as:

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Hammocks…
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Canals…
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Cypress domes (AKA mosquito breeding grounds)…

and any other environment necessary. Even Innocent looking open pastures are actually cow patty mine fields.

There are multiple dangers in Florida archaeology that we have to keep an eye out for.  I have already mentioned snakes.  There are multiple venomous species in Florida and we have all nearly stepped on one multiple times, or nearly had one drop on our heads!

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Spiders are another risk.  Not just because there are venomous species as well, but because they are just plain creepy and I personally feel at risk of having a heart attack every time I accidentally walk into one of their webs.

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How would you like to run face first into this guy?!

While I may not have run into a giant man-eating alligator yet, seeing alligators while in the field is usual and we try to be wary.  We also have to watch for panthers, wolves, and bears.  My favorite section of our safety manual is where it tells us to speak to the bear in a calm, assertive voice and if that doesn’t scare it away, people have successfully fought them off with large sticks, shovels, and even their bare hands.

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Yeah, that’ll work.

It’s not a typical day in the field (at least for me) without getting some kind injury.  Usually it’s scratches or cuts from thorns such as Smilax, tree branches we have to barrel our way through, and going through barbed-wire fences to name a few.  Then there are the millions of mosquitoes trying to exsanguinate you, oak tree ants stinging you over and over until you manage to find them and squish them, ticks that can give you limes disease, wasps, and other insects I don’t know the name of, but I swear had to be created in a lab by a mad scientist bent on our destruction.

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It’s the only explanation for their existence and purpose in this world.

Other non-bloodletting injuries common in our line of work include back, neck, shoulder, and knee injuries from the repetitive physical labor involved in digging and screening.  Tripping and falling due to roots, cypress knees, vines, or in my case my own uncoordinated feet, is not uncommon and all of our equipment comes crashing down with us.  Bruises are regular features on our extremities.  I sometimes get asked if someone is abusing me.  I say no, I do this to myself.  Accidents on field vehicles are a risk as well.  One former TAS employee flipped his ATV and shattered his wrist.  He has metal plates and pins in his wrist now.

6. The glamour

You may ask:  Why do we do what we do?  With all the injuries, risks, and dangers mentioned above?  Since we don’t get to keep the artifacts we find for ourselves?  Since we don’t make a lot of money doing it?  And especially since we don’t get to battle Nazis while trying to recover priceless magical artifacts protected by formidable booby traps?

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If only…

Every archaeologist may say something different, but for me this career is one of the most interesting and exciting in the world!  The artifacts we usually find may not be exciting to most people, but no matter what it is, imagine the thrill of finding and touching something nobody has seen or touched for hundreds to thousands of years.  Or fifty.  Technically anything fifty years or older is a historic artifact.

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My mom wasn’t too happy when I pointed out that technically she’s an artifact now.

Every site that we find is a mystery that we get to try to solve.  We use the evidence we record on our projects to try to figure out what happened in that area and how people in the past lived.  In that way, we’re more like Sherlock Holmes than Indiana Jones.

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Too bad his hat isn’t useful for fieldwork.

Travel and Adventure!  As an archaeologist for the TAS, I don’t have to work in one place all the time.  I get to travel throughout southern Florida.  When I was working for Cultural Resource Management (CRM) firms, I got to travel to states all throughout the Midwest and as part of my archaeology field school I even got to dig in Ireland!  I get to travel all over, meet new people, and experience things I’ve never experienced before.  I have gotten to explore castles and caves, make friends in multiple states and countries, and take part in exciting discoveries!

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And play in trees!

And not all animals encountered in the field are dangerous.

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Though they did try to kill me with their cuteness!

 

Young Scholars Visit and Research

By

Mary Beth Rosebrough, Research Coordinator

Weiss School in Library

Elementary school is a pleasant memory for most of us, isn’t it? Playing on the swings, jumping rope, learning the cool 9 times table rule, yet does anything strike terror into a parent’s heart more than hearing your child say, “I have to do a Science Fair project”?  Ugh, the dreaded images of procrastination and meltdowns, late nights and running out of construction paper.  It’s a parent’s nightmare!  If you have or know a child who has ever completed a project by themselves, please alert the media!

But then there is the National History Day project. Started in 1974 in Ohio by a professor at Case Western Reserve, it has over a million participants competing every year.  And every year a small portion of that million contacts or come visit us in a quest to win.  Here in the research library, behind a locked door at the back of the museum, we help numerous students research their innovative ideas.  This year has been no exception. As the Research Coordinator I have fielded many requests for information and visit appointments.  Most are from high school students but not always.  Sometimes middle school students want to study here too.

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This past December we were lucky enough to host the Weiss School for gifted children. Driving down all the way from Palm Beach Gardens, a good two hour drive, eight students in sixth and seventh grade, four chaperones and one teacher, Mr. Steve Hammerman, came and toured the museum before “hitting the books” after lunch.  This precocious bunch had lots of questions.  Did you know that is a sign of intelligence?  Intellectual curiosity is a hallmark of a good student and Bam! Bam! Bam! – the barrage of questions was furious!  What a great experience!  Who doesn’t love a student eager to learn?

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Steven Hammerman, history teacher extraordinaire, was a particularly dedicated and earnest guide. He skillfully led the students (6 girls and 2 boys) through the choppy waters of forming a real hypothesis as we stood in the library discussing their focus.  I was able to explain to them, as they were interested in the Seminole conflict of the 1800s, the newest thinking about the ethnogenesis of the Tribe.  We know, and research is verifying, that the Seminole Tribe of Florida is descended from not just Creek people who migrated into Florida but also from the peoples who were already here.  We also spoke of the Tribal view of the Seminole Wars.  Let me change that to War, singular.  Tribal members have often expressed to me that the time of the 1800s was really one long conflict with intermittent escalations.  Those are what historians call “wars”.  But really the 50 years before the end of the Civil War was one long tumultuous, murderous episode of betrayal and fear.  Our Exhibits Curator, Rebecca Fell, talked about this concept while she and her team installed our current exhibit about Seminole struggle and survival during that war-filled century.

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But I digress….the students from the Weiss School were interested in topics surrounding the conflicts of the 1800s: Andrew Jackson, General Jesup, how the conflicts changed the lifeways of the Tribe and how they survived. They were excited to find a concentration of books on Seminole life and the Seminole War(s).  Most students worked in small groups reading and taking notes from the books on the shelves.  Some were interested in the historic documents we had laid out on the Archival vault table with names like Andrew Jackson and Fort Brooke.  It was a pleasure to teach them how to handle rare documents and watch them begin to comprehend the special care we take to preserve the history of the Seminole Tribe of Florida.

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The day was a great success and Mr. Hammerman was very pleased with the progress the students made in learning how to research, how to find sources (hint: look at the sources used by the author of the book you are reading), and how to form a hypothesis and write a paper using the materials available (one of the most valuable things I learned in college – thank you, Dr. Andrew Frank!). All went home with just a little more knowledge of the Seminole Tribe of Florida and a greater appreciation of what it took to survive and thrive! We had a great day hosting young gifted scholars who were excited to learn and excited to be here.  What could make a better day than that?

Lock and Load: the Museum’s Firearm Collection

By Marlene Gray, Conservator

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FGCU Intern, Silas Pacheco removes dirt and corrosion from a pistol on left. Museum Conservator, Marlene Gray applies protective wax to a rifle on right.

As the Museum’s Conservator, one of my large projects this year was to examine and assess the firearms in the Museum collection. While some of our exhibits have replica weapons on display, the real action is found in the vault where the historic objects are stored. Thirty-eight pistols, rifles, carbines, muskets, and revolvers are safely kept in storage (and are available for viewing by making an appointment for a behind the scenes tour if I have peaked your interest!) I had to determine whether the weapons were still loaded with gun powder or bullets, remove harmful corrosion and dirt, and complete an overall condition survey of that specific collection.   Once it was confirmed that the firearms were safe to handle, each one was inspected and lots of interesting things were discovered.

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The oldest firearm in the collection is a 1750’s French Officer’s musket. French designed weaponry was the inspiration for early 19th century American-made firearms at both armories in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia and Springfield, Massachusetts.  The majority of the Museum’s firearms collection was manufactured at one of these two armories.  This musket is one of few that contain a leather-wrapped piece of flint in the lock.  As the trigger is pulled, the flint makes contact with the frizzen to create sparks that hit the priming powder in the pan, causing it to burn and release enough gases to project the ball from the barrel.

Muskets from the 18th and 19th centuries were known to misfire and not work well in humid and damp conditions.  Percussion cap systems were invented in the early 19th century to remedy these problems, but it was the Maynard Tape Primer System that helped increase the rate of fire.  Dr. Edward Maynard’s tape primer consisted of two thin strips of paper embedded with pellets of priming material.

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Model 1855 U.S. Percussion Rifled-Musket dated 1858

Compared to the manual loading needed with prior percussion cap systems, when the musket’s hammer was cocked, the tape automatically advanced through the lock.  While it was a neat idea, Maynard’s system still did not do well in humid climates, like Florida.  The U.S. Model 1855 Percussion Rifled-Musket in the Museum’s collection is an example of this tape primer system.  This particular musket dates to 1858 and while cleaning, the tape primer was found rolled inside the patchbox.

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Clockwise from top left: Quality mark and flint from New England style Fowler Flintlock Rifle; U.S. Model 1840 Hall-North Breech-loading Percussion Carbine with fishtail lever; tape primer found in patchbox of U.S. Model 1855 Percussion Rifled-Musket.

For something a little rarer, the Museum holds two firearms that were both limited productions. Manufactured by Simeon North in Connecticut, the U.S. Model 1840 Hall-North .52 caliber, breech-loading percussion carbine, Type II is one of just over 6,000 that were made between 1840 and 1843.  It has a fishtail-shaped lever that releases the breech, which is why it was called the fishtail model.  Then there is the .56 caliber Colt Model 1855 revolving rifle that would have been used during the latter years of the Seminole War and during the Civil War.  Only 9,310 of these rifle models were created.  Samuel Colt’s big break came during the Seminole Wars when the U.S. Army purchased his earlier versions of revolving rifles which deterred Seminole warriors from immediate retaliation after U.S. soldiers used their single-shot weapons.

1997-51-2Colt Model 1855 Revolving Rifle

Lastly, there are the materials and intricate designs that make each firearm a work of art. The New England style Fowler flintlock rifle was the first American-made firearm manufactured in the 1770’s and 1780’s and used by early American settlers to hunt.  The Museum’s rifle has a mark on the barrel consisting of a crowned X, which was an indication of the quality standard for pewter.  Our 19th century Spanish smooth bore percussion rifle uses a Miquelet lock system that was often used in Florida’s Spanish settlements.  The ornate gold inlay and shell patchbox make this one of the most decorative weapons in the collection.2003-317-1  Spanish smooth bore percussion rifle

Patinas of blue and brown were historic chemical treatments applied to firearms as both decoration and to prevent metal corrosion.  In the early 19th century, bluing was done with charcoal and heat to form a blue-grey color.  The practice is still done today with different chemicals to create a more blue-purple color.  Bluing can be seen on the U.S. Model 1816 flintlock pistol, manufactured by Simeon North for the U.S. War Department in 1813.  Care must be taken not to remove the bluing or browning patinas on historic firearms since it is an example of historic practices.

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From top to bottom: Oldest firearm in the Museum’s collection, 1750’s French Officer’s Musket; detail of gold inlay on 19th century Spanish Smooth Bore Percussion Rifle; “bluing” on the barrel band of Colt Model 1855 Revolving Rifle.

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Our collection of weapons represents not only the American-made examples that would have been used against Seminole people during the war torn 19th century in Florida, but also one example of the lighter and more versatile Spanish-made weapons that Seminoles acquired through trade during the same period.  Such Spanish guns, as well as the local knowledge and cunning resourcefulness of the Seminoles themselves, helped the Seminole people and their allies resist American soldiers and their guns in order to emerge The Unconquered!

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You can look into these subjects at the Museum research library, where our Research Coordinator can help you find the information you need. Please call ahead for appointments, so that we are better prepared to help you!  To see the historic guns, ask for a behind-the-scenes tour during your next visit to the Museum.  Hope we see you soon!

Seminole Story Days

By Alyssa Boge, Education Coordinator

Hello!

My name is Alyssa and I am the Education Coordinator at the Museum. I am very excited to tell you about an upcoming program–you’re all invited!

I wish I could say that I planned everything out myself, but the truth is I couldn’t have planned everything so perfectly. The Museum has an internship program with Ahfachkee, the local Tribal school, that’s been going on for several years. Typically seniors who are able to participate visit the Museum to learn what different employees do. Depending on their personal and career interests, they decide what they would like to learn about and who they would like to work with.

This year Eden Jumper decided that he wanted to hone his skills with Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator while learning about marketing principles. This is not Eden’s first time working with the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki- in the past he worked with the Exhibits Department to help create a series of interactive cases within the galleries. This year he decided to work with Virginia Yarce, our Development Assistant. Virginia let Eden drive the internship. Eden decided to market our current West Gallery exhibit “Struggle for Survival, 1817-1858” which discusses the Seminole War and features the important Buckskin Declaration, along with “Telling Our Stories” which highlights the Museum’s unique Oral History Program.

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Ahfachkee intern Eden Jumper working on his Photoshop skills

In order to showcase these exhibits, we decided the Museum should offer a variety of activities and presentations. Eden, assisted by Virginia, developed a marketing plan to promote the programming which he presented as a PowerPoint to me, Carrie Dilley, Visitor Services and Development Manager, and Kate Macuen, Assistant Director. He outlined what types of audiences we could market to, what types of marketing we would do, and what promo items we could feature. Eden did a fantastic job with his presentation and got the green light to proceed with planning the event.  Since that time he has worked to develop a program flyer and postcards to coordinate with the event. He brainstormed and wrote a VIP letter with Carrie Dilley and is currently working on the design for a promotional button. Wondering what other materials will he develop next? You’ll have to come to our event to find out!

Seminole Story Days

Postcards!

We decided on the name “Seminole Story Days” for the event, which will take place May 5-7. Each day we will have different activities that highlight topics from both our “Struggle for Survival, 1817-1858” exhibit and our Oral History Program. Tour guides will provide short tours of the exhibit throughout the day. Reinaldo Becerra, our Outreach Specialist, will provide period weapons demonstrations.  Our Oral History Coordinator, Eric Griffis, will talk about the Oral History Program and the exhibit he developed while Rebecca Fell, Curator of Exhibits, will talk about how oral histories are used in the development of exhibits. The Big Cypress Martial Arts group will demonstrate tactics Seminole warriors used against American soldiers. Finally, Eden Jumper will do a short talk about his project and his grandmother, Carol Cypress (wife of the late Museum founder Billy Cypress), will present alongside him.

We have a great line-up and we hope you’ll come out to support Eden and his internship project. Because really, this is Eden’s project and I am so excited that the museum was able to support him to make it happen.

Share about the Event! Here are some links to learn more about the event.  Also, watch for the program details on our website, Facebook and Twitter!

https://www.facebook.com/events/190902474632814/?active_tab=posts

http://ahtahthiki.com/Seminole-Story-Days.html

https://www.cultureowl.com/miami/events/view/struggle-for-survival-1817-1858-exhibit-1