An Alphabetic Opportunity at the Museum

Hello again from the Museum’s Collections team!  We are happy to host many volunteers and work experience participants throughout the year.  This summer an enterprising young journalist used our library resources to design an alphabetic tour through Native American history, with a special focus on Florida.  This proved to be a good way to explore an interest and consider a possible career.  Please enjoy Randean’s article, and let us know if we can help you explore something!

 

Native American History A to Z

By Randean Osceola, summer intern at the Ah-Tha-Thi-Ki museum.

My name is Randean Osceola, and I am a part of the Seminole Tribe of Florida, I am a member of the Wind Clan family. I am an upcoming freshman at Sagemont high school. This summer I decided to be an intern at the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum through the summer work experience program (SWEP). I’m not doing this to pass time or earn money; I’m doing this to get better at reading and writing, and because my mom wanted me to. I decided to write this article because I wanted to inform people about our past.

A: Abiaka Jones “Sam” was the head of a band of Miccosukees during wartime. Seminoles joined him on his quest against the United States. For this reason his “campaign” against the U.S. was one of the most successful. His legacy is a big part of why we are here today.

B: Chief Billie Bowlegs, “Billie Bolek”, was a leader of the Seminoles in Florida in the second and third parts of the Seminole war against the United States. He resisted at first, but eventually moved to Indian Territory.

Billy Bowlegs001

C: Chief Cowkeeper was the Hitchiti speaking Oconee chief at Payne’s Prairie. He challenged Jonathan Bryan, who was trying to steal Native American land. He was torn between peace and war, but later decided to fight for his land.

D: Dunlawton Plantation Sugar Mill Ruins was a Seminole war battle site. It was destroyed in 1835. In 1846 attempts were made of reestablishing the sugar mill, however those attempts failed.

E: Everglades was a safe place for the Native Americans during wartime. While the Seminoles knew the ways of the Everglades, the soldiers were lost.

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F: Fort Brooke, located on the west coast of Florida, was significant in the Removal era. In March 1841 Wildcat, a war leader, went to Fort Brooke to have a meeting with the soldiers. It was in Fort Brooke that President Tyler allowed the Seminoles to stay in Florida for a time, but they were not allowed to leave their land except to go to Fort Brooke. They would receive no food or water.

G: Geronimo “Go-Tay-Thlay” was an Apache chief and a medicine man. Geronimo led his followers on a series of escapes from the soldiers. However, he eventually surrendered to General Nelson Miles where he stayed in captivity until his death.

H: Hills Hadjo was a Seminole leader during the 19th century. He was an active part of the Seminole wars. He was one of the chief instigators of the second uprising.

I:  (The) Indian Removal Act was signed into law by Andrew Jackson on May 28th, 1830; this gave Jackson the Mississippi land in exchange for Indian land.  Only a few tribes went peacefully, many resisted and later agreed, but only a few stayed in their homeland.

J: John Quincy Adams was a U.S. president who differed from earlier presidents Jackson and Monroe in his policy towards the Indians. He was determined that there should be no forcible removal of any tribes. Adams forbade the state of Georgia from surveying the Indian lands.

K: (Chief) King Payne he was the son of Chief Cowkeeper and one of the leading chiefs in the Seminole Tribe. He led his people against the Spanish and the Americans during wartime.

L: Lake Okeechobee was desired by many soldiers during wartime, however none were successful. Not long after the soldiers were rejected, a Seminole resident, James B. Brighton used the land and made another reservation.

M: Muscogulges was the referred name to the Creeks, Seminole, Yahmasee, Tuckabatchee, Hitchiti, Koasati, Timuca, and many other ancient tribes. Rather than naming each one the soldiers referred to the Native Americans as Muscogulges.

N: Naiche, was the last chief of the Chirricahua Apache Tribe. He was the youngest son of Chief Cochise. He spent 27 years in captivity along with some of his people, until he was released in 1913. Naiche and his people continued to fight bravely against the U.S. and Spain until death did them part.

O: Osceola “Billy Powell” was a military leader during the Seminole wars. He stood up for his people, as a force to be reckoned with. If it wasn’t for Osceola we wouldn’t be here today.

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P: “Payne’s Prairie Preserve State Park”, is land that was home to many Seminoles. It was the site of action during wartime, and now has a visitor’s center with displays on the war.

Q: Quanah Parker, he was a war leader of the Comanche people. He fought in the Red River war during 1874-1875 with Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie.

R: Rain-in-the-face was a Native American leader. He was a warrior at a young age: having fought in a December, 1866 battle against Captain William Fetterman’s troops during the Civil War.

S: Seminoles are Native American people originally from Florida. Many live in modern day Oklahoma, but the descendants of the unconquered still live in Florida. The Seminole Tribe of Florida is one of the federally recognized tribes of today.

T: The Trail of Tears was the name given to Andrew Jackson’s actions towards the Native Americans to vacate their lands. He forced them to go to Indian Territory- they set off on foot. A Choctaw Indian told the Alabama newspaper that it was a “Trail of Tears and Death.”

U: The Ute people are the oldest residents of Colorado, their home is in the mountains and vast areas. They are said to have lived there since the beginning of time-there is no proof of them ever not being there.

V: Captain (Joseph) Van Swearingen, was recognized because of his actions during the Battle of Okeechobee. His brave actions lead him to death. The U.S. army troops made a fort in Martin County Florida during the Second Seminole War, they named it after him.

W: Wilma Mankiller, she became the first female Cherokee leader. She won many awards for her leadership and was even Women of the Year in 1986.

X: Xega or “Jaega,” were Indians identified by 16th century Spanish explorers. There is little information about the Jaega tribe, but there are known links to the Ais tribe. The Jaega tribe and the Ais tribe are joined together by marriage. Just west of Boynton Beach in an area of agricultural reserve people have found what seem to be Jaega remains.

Y: Yoholo-Mico, was a Creek Indian. He protested the Indian Springs Treaty. He was the head man of Eufaula town, as well as an outstanding warrior.

Yoholo-Micco001

Z: The Zunis are from New Mexico. Spaniards found their land and demanded they move out. Instead of submitting the Zuni’s resisted. The Zuni’s are still apart of New Mexico today.

 

Bibliography of resources available at the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum Library:

Wright, Leitch Jr. Creeks and Seminoles. Lincoln: University of Lincoln Press, 1986. Print.

Hann, John H. Indians of Central and South Florida 1513-1763. Gainesville: A Florida Heritage, 2003. Print.

Wood, N.B. Lives of Famous Indian Chiefs. Des Moines: Marc Woodmansee, 1906. Print.

Mahon, John K. History of the Second Seminole War. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1985. Print.

Horan, James D. The McKinney-Hall Portrait Gallery of American Indians. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1972. Print.

Covington, James W. The Seminoles of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993. Print.

Summer Time Fun!

By Alyssa Boge, Education Coordinator

Each summer I think things will start to slow down at the Museum, but just like Florida weather, things seem to heat up!

We ended the spring semester saying goodbye to interns, Elisah and Eyanna. Elisah worked with Eric, our Oral Historian, on a video project while Eyanna worked in our Compliance Office and with our Conservator.

With the end of the school year came the beginning of Ahfachkee School’s summer program and our Lego Project. Throughout the spring we worked on building a scale model of the school, but this summer we took a different tack. Our Tribal Historic Preservation Office preserves places important to the Seminole Tribe with our Tribal Register of Historic Places. These places include Red Barn which served an important role in the Seminole cattle industry and government, the Council Oak where the Seminole Constitution and By-laws were signed in 1957, and camp sites like the Josh Camp for which we recently unveiled a site marker (Find out more here: http://seminoletribune.org/josh-camp-marker-unveiled/). This summer we asked students to create places important to them out of Legos to explore why places matter.

Lego Project Pic
Students work on their scale model of the school

We also worked with kids from our local Boys and Girls Club and Recreation Department to offer our Summer Program. On one day students created their own art inspired by our current exhibit “Elgin Jumper: Portraits and Landscapes.”

Another day kids learned about cattle traditions with Rodeo Trivia. How well do you think you would do? Do you know when the first cattle management program was formed? It was 1937! Do you know who brought cattle to the Seminole? It was the Spanish! And finally, do you know who Cow Keeper was? He was an important Seminole leader with a very large herd of cattle in the 1740s. Kids also got to try roping for themselves and designed their own brands.

Letter Pic
Written in 1774, this is the oldest letter in our collection and records a talk to Cow Keeper. http://semtribe.pastperfectonline.com/archive/3CCD1DAB-6EBD-467F-983E-469125160055

Our Rodeo activities weren’t just reserved for kids though. For our Rodeo Day Discovery Day, visitors learned more with our mobile cattle cart exhibit, got to try roping for themselves, and even got a bit crafty making beaded cow keychains.

Visitors enjoy activities at our Rodeo Days!

Our Discovery Day series continues with our Everglades Day this Saturday, July 22nd! Join us and hear Daniel Tommie talk about his hunting camp from 12-1, try archery, taste swamp cabbage and more. All activities are included in your admission. Our final Discovery Day will be our Art at Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Day on September 9th.

This summer we also have activities in Spanish. Our final Spanish Day will be August 13th with tours and crafts from 1-4pm.

We hope to see you out here and enjoy the rest of your summer!

 

Interns Dig Archaeology!

By Victoria Lincoln, Tribal Archaeology Section Intern

My name is Victoria Lincoln, I am a senior at Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU) studying Anthropology and History and also am employed with Florida Public Archaeology Network (FPAN). Upon graduating I intend to further my education by attending graduate school focusing solely on archaeology within the Southeast! For the past six months, I have had the pleasure of interning with the Tribal Archaeology Section (TAS) within the Seminole Tribe of Florida’s Tribal Historic Preservation Office (THPO). Through this internship, I have gained hands-on experience in the preparation, execution, and documentation of Phase I and II cultural resource surveys.

Victoria
TAS Intern, Victoria Lincoln, on excavation at Pineland

Before joining the TAS as an intern, I had limited knowledge or experience with pre-excavation strategies. In May 2016, I attended a field school hosted by FGCU. At this field school, students were immersed in Phase III fieldwork and learned the process of an excavation. However, this was done without learning any of the other phases of archaeological investigations (Phase I and Phase II). Although I learned a lot from this field school, I lacked the ability to perform Phase I and Phase II surveys. To prepare for my future career as an archaeologist, I felt I needed to enhance these skills. Surveying land, performing Phase I shovel tests, and setting up Phase II excavation units are essential to professional archaeological fieldwork. The archaeology internship program provided by the TAS allowed me to really dig my heels in and explore the realities of Tribal Archaeology.

This internship was divided into four stages. First, I learned how to conduct desktop analyses, then Phase I and II cultural resource surveys, which made up the majority of the internship. The final two portions of the internship consisted of lab work and report writing. This structure allowed me to quickly immerse myself in skills valued by contract archaeology firms, THPOs, and State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPO).

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Archaeologist, Shawn Keyte, conducts a shovel test with the help of a curious kitten from the Brighton Reservation

 

The first month of the internship was dedicated to getting acquainted with Geographic Information System (GIS), a tool used by archaeologists to store, manage, analyze, and interpret spatial and geographic data. Knowledge and experience with GIS is extremely sought after by employers. While working with TAS, I used GIS to create maps of the Areas of Potential Effect for numerous projects. I learned how to create modern aerial maps, historic maps, topographic maps, and elevation maps. In doing so, I gained an appreciation for the background research involved in archaeological investigations. Another important step in desktop analysis is determining the probability of encountering cultural material in an archaeological survey. By working closely with the TAS crew, I began to determine this probability myself and plot to be excavated shovel tests in GIS. Over the course of my six-month internship, I have completed nearly 20 desktop analyses putting me well ahead of my fellow classmates who have never used GIS.

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Archaeologist Rachel Morgan uses a trimble and a metal detector to complete a survey

 

Nick Trimble
Archaeologist Nick Butler uses the Trimble during a survey

As mentioned previously, field work made up the majority of the internship. This is the step where APEs previously mapped out during the desktop analysis are visited and Phase I shovel tests are excavated. I was taken out with TAS employees to sites on the Brighton and Big Cypress Reservations, where I was able to learn how to maneuver through hammocks and cypress domes. Although this was definitely challenging, it was by far my favorite part of the internship. During Phase I surveys, I excavated holes to a depth of 100 centimeters. I did not encounter any archaeological artifacts during my time with TAS. Nonetheless, I think this phase of the internship provided a valuable means of understanding the preparation, challenges, and documentation involved in archaeological fieldwork, skills that will undoubtedly be useful in gaining future employment as an archaeologist.

 

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TAS Inerns, Marshall Sterling and Victoria Lincoln, put their Phase I skills to the test in a pasture on the Big Cypress Reservation.

As the hot summer days of May came upon the Reservations, I began alternating between lab work and report writing. I became acquainted with the process of cleaning, organizing and documenting cultural resources in the Collections Lab. I had very little experience working in labs prior to this internship. My time in the lab allowed me to gain knowledge in the specific steps taken to ensure cultural materials are handled in an ethical way. Lastly, I learned how to write reports. This was probably one of the less exciting things, but an essential part of any scientific fieldwork. After each cultural resource survey, a report is completed explaining the reason for the fieldwork, the scope of the project, and the results of the survey. Just attending classes at university did not allow me to effectively interpret archaeological investigations. Lab work and report writing allowed me to look at results from the field and confidently communicate findings. This ability will greatly aid me in attaining my future goals.

 

Victoria and Kitten
Kittens make even note taking fun in the field

 

Overall, this internship was an amazing experience which allowed me to become better acquainted with field work and the steps taken prior to Phase I and Phase II excavations. Throughout this internship, TAS’ perspectives and strategies were shared broadening my archaeological perspective. I have also gained a newfound understanding and respect for the views the Seminole Tribe hold regarding their cultural materials and their history. This internship opportunity allowed me to understand the importance of collaborating with indigenous groups and their representatives on research; they share valuable knowledge of the area and people who lived there. This type of collaboration can help to avoid pitfalls in projects archaeologists face when they attempt to downplay indigenous roles and rights. All in all, this internship allowed for hands-on involvement in the field I wish to work in upon graduating. It allowed me to become confident using the tools I need to complete archaeological surveys. As I come to the end of this internship, I feel much more stable in my pursuit of a career in archaeology.

As the Seminole Camp Fire Burns the Seminole Tribe Grows…

by David Higgins, Facilities Manager

CHE HUN TAMO

To the Seminole Tribe of Florida the camp fire is a symbol of life.  It burns continuously, 24/7.  It is a reflection of family, life, and growth to the Seminole people. As the camp fire continues to burn the Seminole people continue to grow; when the Seminole people grow so does the Seminole Tribe.

Fig 1: Seminole Camp Fire in front of the Ah Tah Thi Ki Museum

As the Seminole Camp Fire burns the Seminole Tribe grows.  The Seminole Tribe had a vision to build a museum to hold their artifacts and collections.  They wanted a place that would tell their story.  A place that Tribal members and visitors alike could go and learn of their history and the times they endured from stories and visions of their elders and ancestors.  They built the museum on the land which their great leader “Abiaki” roamed, lived, and was buried near.  The first concept rendering of the museum originated around 1989 and depicted many buildings built around the cypress dome.  It had a dirt walkway which connected the buildings to the main building, the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum.

Fig 2: A colored picture of the first concept rendering of the museum and its buildings

Fig 3: The first concept rendering of the museum and its buildings

As the Seminole Camp Fire burns the Seminole Tribe grows.  The main Museum building was built first and located near the spot the original concept showed the building to be.   It opened its doors on August 21st 1997.  The Museum will be celebrating its 20 year anniversary on August 21st 2017.

As the Seminole Camp Fire burns the Seminole Tribe grows.  Soon they built the second building which was the Curatorial Building.  This building opened its doors three years after the Museum and it contains some office space, vaults, and a lab.  Two years after the curatorial building was built, they placed a temporary modular office to house the Tribal Historic Preservation Office and additional museum staff.

Fig 4: Temporary office building for the Tribal Historic Preservation Office.

As the Seminole Camp Fire burns the Seminole Tribe grows.  Although the buildings and their placements from the original concept has changed, the idea to expand the campus still existed within the Seminole Tribe.  The temporary office was not so temporary—it is falling apart and has outlived its useful life.  The outdoor restrooms and maintenance shop are insufficient and falling apart.

Now, twenty years after the Museum opened its doors, other buildings from the original concept are coming to life.  In the next few weeks the Seminole Tribe will begin to build a new Tribal Historic Preservation and Museum office building.  It will contain office space, a vault, and an archaeological lab.  They will build a maintenance shop to give the exhibits department and maintenance team an area to build exhibits, take care of equipment, and allow for ample on-site storage.  They are adding a restroom in the visitor’s parking lot to help with the visitors, groups, and schools groups which visit and tour their museum.

Fig 5, 6, & 7: Concept drawings of the new Tribal Historic Preservation Office

Fig 8: Concept drawing of the rest rooms in the visitor’s parking lot area

As the Seminole Camp Fire burns the Seminole Tribe grows.  The Museum was named the Ah Tah Thi Ki Museum which means “a place to learn, a place to remember”.  In August of 2017, the Seminole Tribe of Florida will be celebrating their 60th year anniversary.  The Ah Tah Thi Ki Museum will be celebrating its 20th  anniversary.  The Seminole Tribe of Florida and the Museum staff would like to invite you to come and visit their museum.  To learn and remember what the Seminole people and their Tribe has endured, overcome, and accomplished.  To watch the Seminole camp fire burn and watch the Seminole Tribe grow with a vision that started over twenty years ago.  To watch the concept of the museum grow and be fulfilled with the new buildings as they are built.   Come and help us celebrate our 20th anniversary and join us as we walk into the future in our beautiful expanded campus.  Check out the Ah Tah Thi Ki Museum’s website http://www.ahtahthiki.com/ , Twitter, and Facebook for more information on our upcoming exhibits, programs, and events!

Sho Na Bish

One Thousand Years in One Bandolier Bag

By Virginia Yarce, Development Assistant

This year we have been celebrating a “year of anniversaries” at the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum, going back 10, 20, 50, 60 and 200 years, remembering turning points and accomplishments in Seminole history.

Retro Logo - 20 years

How about a memory over 1,000 years old?  With the new bandolier bags on display in our ‘Rekindled: Contemporary Southeastern Beadwork’ Exhibit in our West Gallery, there is a design that brings to life memories of another time, another people, discovered out of the sands of time in the waters off Saint Petersburg.  This is the type of treasured nugget that history lovers delight in, which is often hidden right in front of us as we take in the beautiful art on display.  Only we must go a little deeper, taking the time to listen to the oral histories accompanying the exhibit, or read a blog like this one.

Carol at Rekindled
Carol Cypress, reviewing her own ‘Rekindled’ oral history

The story starts soon after the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum opened in 1997, when another organization celebrating Native American history in Florida was in the making: the Weedon Island Preserve Cultural and Natural History Center located in Old Tampa Bay.   Archaeological finds along the coastline revealed the influence of the Weedon Island Culture on other indigenous groups, especially the ceremonial use of uniquely designed pottery.

Yat Kitischee

The Yat Kitischee Project shows the influence of Weedon Island Culture

Opening  in November, 2002, the website for the cultural center shares that: “the three-story center was designed with the help of Native Americans and keeps with their traditions. For example, the orientation of the center in the preserve is along the cardinal points of the compass (north, south, east and west) with the entrance facing east.  A special curved wall is representative of the remarkable pottery of the early Weeden (alternate spelling) Island people who lived on the island some 1,000 to 1,800 years ago”.

Weedon Cultural Center 

Unique design on the Weedon Island  Preserve Cultural and Natural History Center

 

Carol Cypress was on Weedon Island during the ground-breaking ceremony, and later for a cultural exchange after the center opened. The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum and Ahfachkee School here on Big Cypress Reservation also joined other groups at that time to collaborate on the creation of a virtual tour showcasing Weedon artifacts through the eyes of Native American students.

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Seminole Tribal members contributed to the Weedon Artifact Virtual Tour

In Carol’s oral history, she recorded how she was inspired by the unique designs created by the Weedon Culture, a people we will only know from the artifacts uncovered from the deep.

Pottery Artifact

Weedon Island Pottery Artifact – image from @weedonisland

While the dotted design work was in clay, Carol imagined it in beadwork, and created a blue bandolier bag inspired by the circular pottery designs.  In one of her audio clips (listen here), she tells of how these ancient unknown people are alive today with the Seminole through the honoring of their memory.  The untitled blue bandolier bag – blue like the waters where the design was discovered – is a 1,000+ year journey for Museum visitors to discover in the spoken words and fresh design, rekindling more than Seminole art and history.

Accession Meeting
Carol first shares the stories of her beaded bandolier designs on July 16, 2017 with Rebecca Fell, Curator of Exhibits, and Eric Griffis, Oral History Coordinator
Carol's Blue Bandolier Bag
Carol Cypress’ bandolier bag honoring the Weedon culture and people, currently on loan to the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum thru November 22, 2017